Anonymous Life of Sophocles = T1 Radt
1 Σοφοκλῆς τὸ μὲν γένος ἦν Ἀθηναῖος, υἱὸς δὲ Σοφίλλου, ὃς οὔτε, ὡς Ἀριστόξενός Fr. 115 Wehrli φησι, τέκτων ἢ χαλκεὺς ἦν, οὔτε, ὡς Ἴστρος FGrHist 334 F 33, μαχαιροποιὸς τὴν ἐργασίαν, τυχὸν δὲ ἐκέκτητο δούλους χαλκεῖς χαλκεῖς m: χαλκέας m ἢ τέκτονας· οὐ γὰρ εἰκὸς τὸν ἐκ τοῦ τοιούτου γενόμενον στρατηγίας ἀξιωθῆναι σὺν Περικλεῖ καὶ Θουκυδίδηι, τοῖς πρώτοις τῆς πόλεως· ἀλλ’ οὐδ’ ἂν ὑπὸ τῶν κομικῶν ἄδηκτος ἀφείθη τῶν οὐδὲ Θεμιστοκλέους θεμιστοκλέους M: Περικλέους Buecheler ἀπεσχημένων. ἀπιστητέον δὲ καὶ τῶι Ἴστρωι FGrHist 334 F 34 φάσκοντι αὐτὸν οὐκ Ἀθηναῖον ἀλλὰ Φλιάσιον εἶναι· εἰ δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀνέκαθεν Φλιάσιος ἦν, ἀλλὰ πλὴν Ἴστρου παρ’ οὐδένι ἑτέρωι τοῦτο ἔστιν εὑρεῖν. ἐγένετο οὖν Σοφοκλῆς τὸ γένος Ἀθηναῖος, δήμου Κολωνῆθεν, καὶ τῶι βίωι καὶ τῆι ποιήσει περιφανής, καλῶς τε ἐπαιδεύθη καὶ ἐτράφη ἐν εὐπορίαι, καὶ ἐν πολιτείαι καὶ ἐν πρεσβείαις ἐξητάζετο.
1 Sophocles was an Athenian by birth, the son of Sophillus, who was neither a carpenter nor a blacksmith by profession, as Aristoxenus says, nor, as Ister says, a maker of daggers, but happened to own slaves who were blacksmiths or carpenters. For it is not likely that someone who was descended from such a man would have been considered worthy of a generalship in company with Pericles and Thucydides, the leading men of the city. Nor, if it were true, would he have escaped unscathed from the comic poets, who did not even refrain from mocking men like Themistocles. Nor is Ister to be believed when he asserts that Sophocles was not an Athenian but that he came from Phlius. Even if his family originally came from Phlius, this information is found in no other author besides Ister. So Sophocles was born an Athenian, from the deme of Colonus, and was very renowned, both in his life and in his poetry. He received an excellent education and was brought up in prosperity, and he was involved both in government and in foreign embassies.
2 Γεννηθῆναι δὲ αὐτόν φασιν οα΄ Ὀλυμπιάδι κατὰ τὸ δεύτερον ἔτος ἐπὶ ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Φιλίππου. ἦν δὲ Αἰσχύλου νεώτερος ἔτεσιν ζ΄, Εὐριπίδου δὲ παλαιότερος κδ΄.
2 They say that he was born in the second year of the seventy-first Olympiad, when Philip was archon in Athens (495/4 BCE). He was seven years younger than Aeschylus and twenty-four years older than Euripides.
3 Διεπονήθη δὲ ἐν παισὶ καὶ περὶ παλαίστραν καὶ μουσικήν, ἐξ ὧν ἀμφοτέρων ἐστεφανώθη, ὥς φησιν Ἴστρος FGrHist 334 F 35. ἐδιδάχθη δὲ τὴν μουσικὴν παρὰ Λάμπρωι παρὰ Λάμπρωι Brunck: παρὰ λάμπω m: παρὰ λαμπίω m: παρὰ λαμπίου m: ἐν περιλάμπωι m: καὶ περὶ λαμπίου m, καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχίαν Ἀθηναίων περὶ τρόπαιον ὄντων μετὰ λύρας γυμνὸς ἀληλιμμένος τοῖς παιανίζουσι τῶν ἐπινικίων ἐξῆρχεν.
3 As a child, he worked hard in both wrestling and music, receiving crowns for both, so Ister says. He was taught music by Lamprus, and after the naval battle at Salamis, when the Athenians gathered around the victory monument, he led the chorus with his lyre in the victory songs, naked and anointed with oil.
4 Παρ’ Αἰσχύλωι δὲ τὴν τραγωιδίαν ἔμαθε. καὶ πολλὰ ἐκαινoύργησεν ἐν τοῖς ἀγῶσι, πρῶτον μὲν καταλύσας τὴν ὑπόκρισιν τοῦ ποιητοῦ διὰ τὴν ἰδίαν μικροφωνίαν (πάλαι γὰρ καὶ ὁ ποιητὴς ὑπεκρίνετο αὐτός), τοὺς δὲ αὐτός, τοὺς δὲ Schneidewin, Bergk: αὐτοὺς δὲ τοὺς m: αὐτὸς δὲ m: αὐτὸς δὲ καὶ τοὺς m χορευτὰς ποιήσας ἀντὶ ιβ΄ ιε΄ καὶ τὸν τρίτον ὑποκριτὴν ἐξεῦρεν.
4 He learned the art of tragedy from Aeschylus. And he made many innovations in the contests, being the first to end the practice whereby the poet was also an actor, because his own voice was slight (for formerly the poet himself had also acted). He also changed the number of chorus members from twelve to fifteen and introduced the third actor.
5 Φασὶ δὲ ὅτι καὶ κιθάραν ἀναλαβὼν ἐν μόνωι τῶι Θαμύριδί ποτε ἐκιθάρισεν, ὅθεν καὶ ἐν τῆι ποικίληι στοᾶι μετὰ κιθάρας αὐτὸν γεγράφθαι.
5 They say that, taking up the lyre, he once played it in the Thamyris alone, and that, as a result of this, he was depicted with his lyre on the Painted Stoa.
6 Σάτυρος FHG 3.161f. δέ φησιν ὅτι καὶ τὴν καμπύλην βακτηρίαν αὐτὸς ἐπενόησεν. φησὶ δὲ καὶ Ἴστρος FGrHist 334 F 36 τὰς λευκὰς κρηπῖδας αὐτὸν ἐξευρηκέναι, ἃς ὑποδοῦνται ἃς ὑποδοῦνται m: αἷς ὑποδεσμεύονται m οἵ τε ὑποκριταὶ καὶ οἱ χορευταί· καὶ πρὸς τὰς φύσεις αὐτῶν γράψαι τὰ δράματα· ταῖς δὲ Μούσαις θίασον ἐκ τῶν πεπαιδευμένων συναγαγεῖν.
6 Satyrus says that he also invented the use of the curved staff as a prop. Ister says that he invented the white sandals which the actors and dancers wear, that he wrote his plays to suit their characters, and that he set up a thiasos of the educated in honour of the Muses.
7 Καὶ ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν m: ἁπλῶς ὡς ἔστιν εἰπεῖν m: ὡς ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν Schoene τοῦ ἤθους τοσαύτη τοῦ ἤθους τοσαύτη m: τοσαύτη τοῦ ἤθους αὐτῶι m: τοσαύτη τοῦ γένους αὐτῶ m: τοῦ ἤθους αὐτοῦ τοσαύτη m: τοῦ ἤθους τοσαύτη m: τοῦ ἤθους τοσαύτη αὐτῶι Marcovich γέγονε χάρις ὥστε πάντηι καὶ πρὸς ἁπάντων αὐτὸν στέργεσθαι.
7 Simply put, such was the charm of his character, that he was loved everywhere by all.
8 Νίκας δὲ ἔλαβεν κ΄, ὥς φησι Καρύστιος FHG 4.359, πολλάκις δὲ καὶ δευτερεῖα ἔλαβε, τρίτα δὲ οὐδέποτε.
8 He won twenty victories, as Carystius says, and also often took the second prize, but never the third.
9 Καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ αὐτὸν ξε΄ ξε΄ (ἑξήκοντα πέντε) m: ξθ΄or ἑξήκοντα m: πεντήκοντα πέντε Lessing, Seidler: νε΄ Schultz: πεντήκοντα ἑπτὰ Brunck ἔτων ὄντα στρατηγὸν εἵλοντο πρὸ τῶν Πελοποννησιακῶν ἔτεσιν ζ΄, ἐν τῶι πρὸς Ἀναίους πολέμωι.
9 The Athenians elected him as general when he was sixty-five years old, seven years before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, in the war with the Anaioi.
10 Οὕτω δὲ φιλαθηναιότατος ἦν ὥστε πολλῶν βασιλέων μεταπεμπομένων αὐτὸν οὐκ ἠθέλησε τὴν πατρίδα καταλιπεῖν.
10 He loved Athens so passionately that, although many kings sent for him, he did not want to leave his fatherland.
11 Ἔσχε δὲ καὶ τὴν τοῦ Ἅλωνος ἱερωσύνην, ὃς ἥρως ὃς ἥρως m: ὃς ἥρως <ἦν> Triclinius: ὅς ἐστιν ἥρως m: ὃς ἔστιν ἥρως m μετὰ Ἀσκληπιοῦ παρὰ Χείρωνι […] lac. post Χείρωνι Bergk: <τραφείς> Meineke ἱδρυνθεὶς ὑπὸ Ἰοφῶντος τοῦ υἱοῦ μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν.
11 He also held the priesthood of Halon, who, being a hero, was <educated?> with Asclepius by Cheiron…. <a shrine> dedicated to…. was tended by Iophon, Sophocles’ son, after his death.
12 Γέγονε δὲ καὶ θεοφιλὴς ὁ Σοφοκλῆς ὡς οὐκ ἄλλος, καθά φησιν Ἱερώνυμος Fr. 31 Wehrli […] lac. ante περὶ Jahn: ἐν τῶι ante περὶ add. m: ἱστορῶν ante περὶ Hiller περὶ τῆς χρυσῆς στεφάνης. ταύτης γὰρ ἐξ ἀκροπόλεως κλαπείσης κατ’ ὄναρ Ἡρακλῆς ἐδήλωσε Σοφοκλεῖ, λέγων τὴν †μὴ οἰκοῦσαν† †μὴ οἰκοῦσαν† Radt: οἰκοῦσαν om. m: οὖσαν m: [μὴ οἰκοῦσαν] Ritter: μὴ οἰκητὴν οὖσαν Bothe: ὁμοροῦσαν Westermann: Μικοῦς vel Μητίχου Bergk: Μίκωνος Dindorf: Μ<ε>νοικ<έως τινὸς τυχ>οῦσαν Marcovich οἰκίαν ἐν δεξιᾶι εἰσιόντι ἐρευνῆσαι, ἔνθα ἐκέκρυπτο. ἐμήνυσε δὲ αὐτὴν τῶι δήμωι καὶ τάλαντον ἐδέξατο· τοῦτο γὰρ ἦν προκηρυχθέν. λαβὼν οὖν τὸ τάλαντον ἱερὸν ἱδρύσατο Μηνυτοῦ Ἡρακλέους.
12 Sophocles’ piety exceeded that of anyone else, as Hieronymus says…. concerning the golden crown. For when this was stolen from the Acropolis, Heracles revealed the fact to Sophocles in a dream, telling him to look for a house on the right as he was walking where it had been hidden. He made this known to the Athenian people and received a talent, the reward that had been announced in advance. So he took the talent and established a shrine for Heracles the Revealer.
13 Φέρεται φέρεται Schneidewin, Dindorf: φαίνεται M δὲ καὶ παρὰ πολλοῖς ἡ πρὸς τὸν υἱὸν Ἰοφῶντα γενομένη αὐτῶι δίκη. ἔχων γὰρ ἐκ μὲν Νικοστράτης Ἰοφῶντα, ἐκ δὲ Θεωρίδος Σικυωνίας Ἀρίστωνα, τὸν ἐκ τούτου γενόμενον παῖδα Σοφοκλέα τοὔνομα πλέον ἔστεργε. καί ποτε ἐν δράματι ἐν δράματι M: <Λεύκων> ἐν δράμασιν Naeke: <Πλάτων> ἐν δράμασι Meier: <Ἀριστοφάνης> ἐν δράμασιν Hermann εἰσήγαγε […] lac. ante τὸν Radt τὸν Ἰοφῶντα αὐτῶι φθονοῦντα καὶ πρὸς τοὺς φράτορας ἐγκαλοῦντα τῶι πατρὶ ὡς ὑπὸ γήρως παραφρονοῦντι· οἱ δὲ τῶι Ἰοφῶντι ἐπετίμησαν. Σάτυρος FHG 3.162. F. Portus (1854) saw an allusion here to the etymology of Sophocles’ name, ‘which means a man famous for wisdom.’ δέ φησιν αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν “εἰ μέν εἰμι Σοφοκλῆς, οὐ παραφρονῶ· εἰ δὲ παραφρονῶ, οὐκ εἰμὶ Σοφοκλῆς”, καὶ τότε τὸν Οἰδίποδα παραναγνῶναι.
13 A number of authors also refer to his lawsuit with his son Iophon. For Iophon was his son by Nicostrate and Ariston by Theoris, a Sicyonian, and he showed greater affection for the latter’s child, whose name was Sophocles. And once in a drama he brought on … Iophon as envious of him and making an accusation against his father before the phratry that he was suffering from dementia. But they penalized Iophon. According to Satyrus, the playwright said: ‘if I am Sophocles I am not mad. But if I am mad, I am not Sophocles,’ and then he read from the Oedipus.
14 Τελευτῆσαι δὲ αὐτὸν Ἴστρος FGrHist 334 F 37 καὶ Νεάνθης FGrHist 84 F 18 φασὶ τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον· Καλλιπίδην ὑποκριτὴν ἀπὸ ἐργασίας ἐξ Ὀποῦντος ἥκοντα περὶ τοὺς Χόας πέμψαι αὐτῶι σταφυλήν, τὸν δὲ Σοφοκλέα λαβόντα εἰς τὸ στόμα ῥᾶγα ἔτι ὀμφακίζουσαν ὐπὸ τοῦ ἄγαν γήρως ἀποπνιγέντα τελευτῆσαι. Σάτυρος FHG 3.162 δέ φησι τὴν Ἀντιγόνην ἀναγινώνσκοντα καὶ ἐμπεσόντα περὶ τὰ τέλη νοήματι μακρῶι καὶ μέσην ἢ ὑποστιγμὴν πρὸς ἀνάπαυσιν μὴ ἔχοντι, ἄγαν ἐπιτείναντα ἐπιτείναντα Nauck: ἀποτείναντα m: ἀποτείναντι m τὴν φωνὴν σὺν τῆι φωνῆι καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν ἀφεῖναι. οἱ δὲ ὅτι μετὰ τὴν τοῦ δράματος ἀνάγνωσιν, ὅτε νικῶν ἐκηρύχθη, χαρᾶι νικηθεὶς ἐξέλιπεν.
14 Ister and Neanthes say that he died in the following way: the actor Callipides, who had come from the workshop in Opous at around the time of the Choes, sent Sophocles a bunch of grapes. And Sophocles, putting a grape in his mouth that was still unripe, choked as a result of his extreme old age and then died. Satyrus says that whilst he was reading the Antigone, when he came to a lengthy sentence towards the end that did not have any punctuation indicating a pause, having forced himself to go on speaking, he gave up speech and life-breath together. Others say that after a reading of the play, when the announcement was made that he had been victorious, he departed life, overcome by joy.
15 Καὶ εἰς τὸν πατρώιον τάφον εἰς τὸν πατρώιον τάφον Nauck: ἐπὶ τὸν πατρώιον τάφον m: ἐπὶ τῶν πατρώιων τάφων m: pro καὶ…Ἀθηναίων habet m τῶν δὲ πατρώων αὐτοῦ τάφων ἐπὶ δεκέλειαν κειμένων πρὸ σταδίων τοῦ τείχους ἕνδεκα, καὶ τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον ἐπιτετειχικότων λακεδαιμονίων κατὰ τῶν ἀθηναίων, ἐπείπερ οὐχ οἷόν τε ἦν αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ θάπτειν κτλ. ἐτέθη τὸν παρὰ τὴν ἐπὶ παρὰ τὴν ἐπὶ Michaelis: ἐπὶ τὴν M Δεκέλειαν ὁδὸν κείμενον τὸν…κείμενον m: τῶν…κειμένων m πρὸ τοῦ τείχους ια΄ σταδίων· φασὶ δὲ ὅτι καὶ τῶι μνήματι αὐτοῦ σειρῆνα ἐπέστησαν, οἱ δὲ χελιδόνα χαλκῆν. καὶ τοῦτον τὸν τόπον ἐπιτετειχικότων Λακεδαιμονίων κατὰ Ἀθηναίων Διόνυσος κατ’ ὄναρ ἐπιστὰς Λυσάνδρωι ἐκέλευσεν ἐπιτρέψαι τεθῆναι τὸν ἄνδρα εἰς τὸν τάφον· ὡς δὲ ὠλιγώρησεν ὁ Λύσανδρος, δεύτερον αὐτῶι ἐπέστη ὁ Διόνυσος τὸ αὐτὸ κελεύων· ὁ δὲ Λύσανδρος πυνθανόμενος παρὰ τῶν φυγάδων, τίς εἴη ὁ τελευτήσας, καὶ μαθὼν ὅτι Σοφοκλῆς ὑπάρχει, κήρυκα πέμψας ἐδίδου θάπτειν τὸν ἄνδρα.
15 He was placed in the tomb of his ancestors, which lies beside the road to Deceleia, eleven stades in front of the wall. Some say that they set up a statue of a Siren on his memorial, others, that it was a bronze swallow. When the Spartans were building fortifications against the Athenians on this spot, Dionysus appeared before Lysander in a dream vision and ordered him to allow the man to be placed in the tomb. When Lysander made light of his dream, Dionysus appeared to him a second time, with the same instruction. Then Lysander, enquiring from some exiles who the dead man was, after learning that it was Sophocles, sent a herald granting the man burial.
16 Λόβων Λόβων Bergk: λάβων M δέ φησιν ἐπιγεγράφθαι τῶι τάφωι αὐτοῦ τάδε·
κρύπτω τῶιδε τάφωι Σοφοκλῆ πρωτεῖα λαβόντα
τῆι τραγικῆι τέχνηι, σχῆμα τὸ σεμνότατον.
16 Lobon says that the following is inscribed on his tomb:
I enclose in this tomb Sophocles, who took first place in the tragic art, a most venerable figure.
17 Ἴστρος FGrHist 334 F 38 δέ φησιν Ἀθηναίους διὰ τὴν τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀρετὴν ψήφισμα πεποιηκέναι καθ’ ἕκαστον ἔτος καθ’ ἕκαστον ἔτος m: καὶ καθ’ ἕκαστον ἔτος m: κατ’ ἔτος ἕκαστος m: κατ’ ἔτος ἕκαστον m: καθέκαστος m: καθέκαστον m: κατ’ ἔτος m αὐτῶι θύειν.
17 Ister says that, on account of his virtue, the Athenians voted that sacrifices should be made to him every year.
18 Ἔχει δὲ δράματα, ὥς φησιν Ἀριστοφάνης Fr. IV, p. 249 Nauck, ρλ΄, τούτων δὲ νενόθευται ιζ΄.
18 Aristophanes says that he wrote a hundred and thirty plays, but seventeen of these are considered spurious.
19 Συνηγωνίσατο δὲ καὶ Αἰσχύλωι καὶ Εὐριπίδηι καὶ Χοιρίλωι καὶ Ἀριστίαι καὶ Ἀριστίαι om. m: καὶ Χοιρίλωι καὶ Ἀριστίαι del. Dindorf καὶ ἄλλοις πολλοῖς καὶ Ἰοφῶντι τῶι υἱῶι.
19 He competed with Aeschylus, Euripides, Choerilus, Aristias and many others, including Iophon his son.
20 Τὸ πᾶν μὲν οὖν Ὁμηρικῶς ὠνόμαζε· τούς τε γὰρ μύθους φέρει κατ’ ἴχνος τοῦ ποιητοῦ καὶ τὴν Ὀδύσσειαν δὲ ἐν πολλοῖς δράμασιν ἀπογράφεται. παρετυμολογεῖ δὲ καθ’ Ὅμηρον Hom. Od. 19.406-7 καὶ τοὔνομα τοῦ Ὀδυσσέως· Fr. 4 Radt
ὀρθῶς δ’ Ὀδυσσεύς εἰμ’ ἐπώνυμος κακῶν κακῶν Blaydes: κακοῖς m: κακῶς m: κακὸς m·
πολλοὶ γὰρ ὠδύσαντο δυσμενεῖς δυσμενεῖς Nauck: δυσσεβεῖς M ἐμοί·
ἠθοποιεῖ τε καὶ ποικίλλει καὶ τοῖς ἐπινοήμασι τεχνικῶς χρῆται, Ὁμηρικὴν ἐκματτόμενος χάριν. ὅθεν εἰπεῖν λέγεται post εἰπεῖν add. m †Ἰωνικόν τινα† Ἴωνα τὸν ποιητὴν Meineke: Ἴωνα τὸν Χῖον/τραγικὸν Bergk: Ἴωνα τραγικόν τινα Blumenthal: Πλατωνικόν τινα Bergk: παρὰ *** Ἰωνικόν τινα Leutsch: κωμικόν τινα Schoene μόνον Σοφοκλέα τυγχάνειν Ὁμήρου μαθητήν. καὶ ἄλλοι μὲν πολλοὶ μεμίμηνταί τινα τῶν πρὸ αὑτῶν ἢ τῶν καθ’ αὑτούς, μόνος δὲ Σοφοκλῆς ἀφ’ ἑκάστου τὸ λαμπρὸν ἀπανθίζει· καθ’ ὃ καὶ μέλιττα ἐλέγετο. ἤνεγκε δὲ τὰ μικτά· εὐκαιρίαν, γλυκύτητα, τόλμαν, ποικιλίαν.
20 On the whole, his vocabulary is Homeric. He also followed in Homer’s footsteps when composing his plots and copies the Odyssey in many of his dramas. He even follows Homer in showing the etymology of Odysseus’ name:
I am rightly called Odysseus because of my troubles; for many are wroth against me and bear me ill will.
He delineates character, embellishes, and makes skilful use of intent, imitating Homer’s charm. As a result, one Ionian says that Sophocles alone is Homer’s disciple. Many others have imitated one of their forebears or contemporaries, but Sophocles alone gathers the clearest honey from each. It is for this reason that he was also called the bee. He blended together good timing, sweetness, daring and embellishment.
21 Οἶδε δὲ καιρὸν συμμετρῆσαι καὶ πράγματα ὥστε ἐκ μικροῦ ἠμιστιχίου ἢ λέξεως ἢ λέξεως Brunck: ἤλεγξεν ὡς M μιᾶς ὅλον ἠθοποιεῖν πρόσωπον. ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο μέγιστον ἐν τῆι ποιητικῆι, δηλοῦν ἦθος ἢ πάθος.
21 He knew how to pace the time and events so well that in a short hemistich or a single word he was able to delineate an entire character. This is the greatest achievement in poetry, to reveal character or emotional affect.
22 Φησὶν οὖν Ἀριστοφάνης Fr. 580 A Edmonds ὅτι “κηρὸς ἐπεκαθέζετο…”, ἄλληι ἄλληι Westermann: ἄλλοι M δέ “Σοφοκλέους τοῦ μέλιτι τὸ στόμα κεχρισμένου.” Aristophanes, fr. 581 K = T 108 Radt
22 So Aristophanes says, ‘a honeycomb sat on him’, and elsewhere says ‘Sophocles, whose mouth was smeared with honey.’
23 Φησὶ δὲ Ἀριστόξενος Fr. 79 Wehrli ὡς πρῶτος τῶν Ἀθήνηθεν ποιητῶν τὴν Φρυγίαν μελοποιίαν εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἄισματα παρέλαβε καὶ τοῦ διθυραμβικοῦ τρόπου κατέμιξεν.
23 Aristoxenus says that he was the first of the Athenian poets to introduce Phrygian melodies into his own songs and to mix in the dithyrambic style.